About: Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock, is a large sandstone rock formation located in the southern part of the Northern Territory, Australia. It is situated 335 km / 208 mi, by air, south west of Alice Springs, 450 km / 280 mi by road. The sandstone formation stands 348 m / 1,142 ft high, at 863 m / 2,831 ft above sea level having most of its bulk beneath ground, with total circumference of 9.4 km / 5.8 mi.
Cultural Heritage: Uluru is home to an abundance of springs, rock caves, waterholes, and ancient paintings. Uluru, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, consists of Uluru and Kata Tjuta, also known as the Olgas; these two sites are the landmarks of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park. Both Uluru and Kata Tjuta share great cultural significance for the Anangu people, the natives of the area. Aṉangu people lead walking tours and inform tourists about the flora and fauna, bush flood and the Aboriginal dreamtime stories of the region.
Structure: Uluru is an inselberg, which means “isolated mountain”. An inselberg means an isolated hill that rises abruptly from the ground and is surrounded by extensive and relatively flat erosion lowlands. Uluru is also referred to as a monolith having a remarkable feature of its homogeneity and lack of jointing and parting at bedding surfaces. This type of formation led to the lack of development of scree slopes and soil for its survival, while the other rocks surrounding Uluru were eroded.
Flora and Fauna: As per the official record, there were historically 46 species of native mammals living near Uluru; and the recent surveys show there are currently 21 species. The locally extinct animals are malleefowl, common brushtail possum, mala, bilby etc. Efforts are being put to reintroduce these extinct animals.
Climate: The park has a hot desert climate with an average rainfall of 284.6 mm / 11.2 in each year. The average high temperature in summer (December–January) is 37.8 °C (100.0 °F), while the average low temperature in winter (June–July) is 4.7 °C (40.5 °F).
Tourism: Prior to 1970s, the tourism infrastructure was adjacent to the base of Uluru which began in 1950s. But due to the adverse environmental impacts, the accommodation-related tourist were removed and established outside the park. Uluru is one of the famous attractions of Australia, for international and domestic tourists, and is visited by over 250,000 people every year.